Friday, May 22, 2020
Social and Ethical Technology Concerns-Biotechnology Biotechnology is technology based on living organisms. It harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies or products which are immensely useful to mankind. Biotechnology modifies living organisms according to our needs. Humans have employed this tool in the fields of agriculture, food industry and medicine for more than 6000 years. We see numerous biotechnological applications in our every-day life. Preparation of food products like bread, cheese and preservatives in dairy products are all outcomes of this great scientific tool (Biotechnology Industry Organization). Modern biotechnological research has created wonders for mankind. It has provided products to combat rare diseases, vaccines for untreatable diseases, food for the hungry and a safer, cleaner environment to our planet. Biotechnology has played a vital role in reducing the green house effect and in producing a cleaner planet. Because of the worldwide economic and environmental concerns regarding the use of petro-chemicals, extensive research has been conducted on residual biomass. Significant progress has been made in the field of lignocellulose biotechnology. Lignocellulosic waste materials have been used in the production of bio-fuels, enzymes, chemicals, the pulp and paper, animal feed and composites (Iqbal, 2013). Moreover, algal biomass has received huge attention in producing biofuels due to their relatively high growth rate, greatShow MoreRelatedEssay about Sci 115 Week 8 Assignment 2 Gene Technology1132 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSCI 115 WEEK 8 ASSIGNMENT 2 GENE TECHNOLOGY To purchase this visit here: http://www.activitymode.com/product/sci-115-week-8-assignment-2-gene-technology/ Contact us at: SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM SCI 115 WEEK 8 ASSIGNMENT 2 GENE TECHNOLOGY SCI 115 Week 8 Assignment 2 - Gene Technology Gene technology carries with it social and ethical implicationsÃ¢â¬âmany of which engender personal views and discussion. Select one (1) of the following biotechnology topics to write about: Ã¢â¬ ¢ GeneticallyRead MoreModern Food Biotechnology, Human Health And Development : An Evidence Based Stud1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesModern Food Biotechnology, Human Health and Development: An Evidence-Based Stud Food security is a recurrent issue in modern society due to the continual increase in human population. Most countries have invested in scientific research in order to bridge the disparity that is existent concerning demand and supply of food (Roberts 7). This clamour for food security has enhanced the development of dynamic biotechnological procedures that not only accentuate food production but also offer an opportunityRead MoreGenetically Modified Organisms ( Gmo ) Essay1737 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmanipulated, or engineered organisms. The intentional incorporation or deletion of their genes is intended to introduce or modify some of its characteristics. Although this has been seen as a great advantage by many scientists and supporters of this technology, transgenic organisms suppose a danger that has not been conceived at all and that may affect the world in an unrepairable and decontrolled way. There has been always the need to improve organisms to obtain desirable features and characteristicsRead MoreGenetically Modified Animals : Genetic Engineering1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAssignment #2 Strayer University Professor 08/23/2015 Genetically Modified Animals Introduction In this research paper on gene technology I hope to share some understanding in the process of gene transfer in animals, the process of obtaining genetically engineered animals, and analyze the social and moral implications associated with this gene technology in animals. Genetic modification of animals started thirty years ago with the production of genetically modified mice. Gene modificationRead MoreThe Use Of Gmo Foods1145 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe use of GMO s Biotechnology offers a variety of potential benefits and risks. It enhanced the food production by making plants less vulnerable to drought, frost, insects, and viruses and by enabling plants to compete more effectively against weeds for soil nutrients. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are defined as organisms (except for human beings) in which the genetic material has been altered in a way which doesn t occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. GMO s haveRead MoreThe Use Of Gmo Foods1279 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe use of GMO s Biotechnology offers a variety of potential benefits and risks. It enhanced the food production by making plants less vulnerable to drought, frost, insects, and viruses and by enabling plants to compete more effectively against weeds for soil nutrients. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are defined as organisms (except for human beings) in which the genetic material has been altered in a way which doesn t occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. GMO s haveRead MoreMoral And Ethical Implications Of 3d Printing Technology1478 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Moral and Ethical Implications of 3D Printing Technology In his work, Ã¢â¬Å"Introduction: Nanotechnology, Society, and EthicsÃ¢â¬ , CalPoly Associate Professor of Philosophy Patrick Lin writes, Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take a step back and consider any given technology we have created: gunpowder, the printing press, the camera, the automobile, nuclear power, the computer, Prozac, Viagra, the mobile phone, the Internet. Undoubtedly, these have brought us much good, but each has also changed society in important, fundamentalRead MoreDna And Ethics Of Recombinant Dna1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Recombinant DNA and Ethics Recombinant DNA technology has become a powerful influence to many fields including medicine, pharmaceuticals and agriculture. Genetic modifications of plants, animals and other organisms have allowed scientists to improve the quality of human life. As genetic engineering continues to rapidly grow, many ethical, social and legal issues arise evaluating the risks and benefits of the number of applications for DNA technologies. Labatory Scene In the labatory, pharmacy,Read MoreThe Field Of Reproductive Technology1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTodayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture has a growing fascination with biotechnology and genetic engineering. This is especially true within the field of reproductive technology. Advancements in this field has expanded family options significantly with the advent of reproductive technologies such as in vetro fertilization, embryo transplant, and varying genetic testing and screening (Finsterbusch, 2008). However, what drives humanity to want to modify humankind? Should there be limits placed on these modifications? AndRead MoreGene Technology : Genetically Modified Crop Plants1702 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages GENE TECHNOLOGY: GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROP PLANTS LYNN FOWKES STRAYER UNIVERSITY DR. NICOLE MINOR SCI 115 NOVEMBER 30, 2015 Biological basis Biological technology began with the use of the very simple household item, like natural yeast. Yeast has been used long before modern technological technologies. It was originally used for making bread, wine, and beer. This simple item uses a process called fermentation. Fermentation is the process in which a chemical breakdown occurs by using
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Nature Vs. Society: WordsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s Romantic Poetry Over time, poetry has changed and evolved in its sense of the word nature. In its beginnings the idea of nature or natural was seen as negative and evil. However, in more recent times due to the era of Romanticism, nature in poetry is viewed in a positive and even beautiful light. William Wordsworth was a poet who wrote his poetry with a romantic attitude. Furthermore Wordsworth wrote specifically the poems Ã¢â¬Å"We Are SevenÃ¢â¬ (WAS) and Ã¢â¬Å"Three Years She GrewÃ¢â¬ (TYSG) in a style that showcased the superiority of nature over society. Ã¢â¬Å"We Are SevenÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Three Years She GrewÃ¢â¬ portray a romantic attitude in their works, additionally the values placed on the natural world over the societal worldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The second poem Ã¢â¬Å"Three Years She GrewÃ¢â¬ has the same theme of death however, is from a different perspective. Generally, the poem is about a man who share s a love for a woman although her life is short lived. The poem is full of compliments towards nature, and to be associated is seen to be of the upmost regards. In the first stanza, the audience is hearing about how nature feels about this now young three-year-old girl also known as Lucy. Nature is ultimately personified almost as a mother figure or further Mother Nature in which Ã¢â¬Å"adoptsÃ¢â¬ the young girl. Then Nature said, Ã¢â¬Å"A lovelier flower On earth was never sown; This Child I to myself will take; She shall be mine, and I will make A Lady of my own. (Wordsworth, TYSG, 2-6) In this verse, nature is choosing the young girl for itÃ¢â¬â¢s own, which in the natural world can be viewed as one of the best things that can happen to an individual. Also, nature marks the girl as Ã¢â¬Å"LadyÃ¢â¬ which invokes a class status, that of upper class. Lucy will be a natural lady, and thus does not need societyÃ¢â¬â¢s confirmation of this, furthermore contrasting nature to society in social recognition. The second stanza also compares nature to society in the use of social laws. Ã¢â¬Å"Both law and impulse: and with meÃ¢â¬ ¦/ Ã¢â¬ ¦[s]hall feel an overseeing power/ [t]o kindle or restrainÃ¢â¬ . (Wordsworth, TYSG, 8-12) InShow MoreRelatedThe Romantic Movement Of William Wordsworth And Samuel Taylor Coleridge Essay1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages INTRODUCTION The Romantic Movement was introduced around1820 to America; this movement overlapped with the period of national development. Romantic philosophies looked at art as spiritual elements of nature and used metaphors as an inspiration. Nature was a significant theme for the duration of this period since supernatural things began in our imagination. Many sonnets were created using freedom of thought however these writings soon shifted to an imagination method (natural surroundings) fromRead MoreAnalysis Of Daffodils By William Wordsworth2381 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesdedicated to a return to nature within literature and art. It was a confident reaction to the industrial revolution, in which man-made objects became the life of soul of the everymanÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday life. The great artists and poets and authors of the time began to create works filled with passion and emotion and all interpreted from the themes within nature. During this period, authors and artists alike found inspiration in things such as flowers, for example William WordsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s classic entitled Ã¢â¬ËdaffodilsÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreThe Romantic Period Stressed Instincts, Affection, and Love1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Romantic period or Romanticism was a literary movement that had sprung in England in late 18th century. The rise of the movement was precipitated by the issuing of Lyrical Ballads by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge .The movement came to cope up with the general tenors of the Industrial and Enlightenment age .It stressed on things like instincts, affection , love,the heart over the head .It came also to celebrate such things as mysticism and the natural world.Romanticism alsoRead MoreRomanticism versus Neoclassicism2775 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesNeoclassical and Romantic movements cover the period of 1750 to 1850. Neoclassicism showed life to be more rational than it really was. The Romantics favoured an interest in nature, picturesque, violent, sublime. Unlike Neo_cla ssicism, which stood for the order, reason, tradition, society, intellect and formal diction, Romanticism allowed people to get away from the constrained rational views of life and concentrate on an emotional and sentimental side of humanity. In this movement the emphasis was
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(215) " apoptosis of abnormal cells, whereas E7 inactivates Rb \(retinoblastoma\) function, which results in abnormal cell proliferation and disturbs the normal cell cycle regulation \(Wang, 2007; WHO, 2006; Mera, 1997\)\." Abstract: Cancer arises due to abnormal changes or mutations, in the genes responsible for regulating the growth of cells. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the aetiological agent for many cancers including cervical cancer. HPV causes disruption and loss of some of the viral genes such as L1 and L2 genes and also increases the expression of the early genes. We will write a custom essay sample on Association of Human papillomavirus and Breast Tumours or any similar topic only for you Order Now Several studies have addressed a relationship with HPV and breast cancer, as different HPVs have been identified. Most of the studies were successful in finding evidence in correlation of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 in invasive ductal breast carcinoma by using different techniques including DNA extraction and PCR, however other studies achieved low positivity or negative result. The aim of this study was to find out the association of HPV and Breast cancer. DNA was successfully extracted from archived breast tissue samples using DNA extraction method. This DNA sample could be amplified by using PCR to find HPV genome specifically targeting E1 gene. This is an ongoing work by the supervisors of the project to try and detect HPV genome in breast cancer, if successful a vaccine could be developed against various strains of HPVs worldwide and it could save many lives. Keywords:Human papillomavirus, DNA Extraction, Breast cancer, Vaccine, PCR, 1. Introduction: 1.1. Breast cancer: Breast cancer is a malignant tumour that originates in the breast tissue, mainly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply milk to the ducts, cancers that initiates from ducts are called ductal carcinomas and those originating from lobules are called as lobular carcinomas. Cancer occurs due to abnormal changes or mutations, in the genes responsible for regulating the growth of cells (Sariego, 2010). The change in the genetic information causes a cell to no longer carry out its function properly (Almeida Barry, 2010). The following figures show the two types of cancers Benign and Malignant. (Almeida; Shela, 2010) Figure: 2 malignant tumours Figure 1 and 2: above shows benign vs. malignant cancers. (a) A benign tumour is a mass of cells that remains within the tissue in which it originally developed. (b) The invasion of cancer cells into surrounding tissues is the hallmark of a malignant tumour. Malignant cells may break free from the tumour and travel to other locations in the body through the process of metastasis (Almeida Barry, 2010). 1.2. Epidemiology: Breast cancer is one of the main health problems worldwide (Bao, 2011) and which resulted http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breast_cancer Ã¢â¬â cite_note-WHO_WCR-2 458,503 deaths in 2008 worldwide out of which 13.7% are of cancer deaths in women and it is about 100 times more common in women than in men (Veto, et al., 2009). The table below shows how females are susceptible to breast cancer at different ages for example there is 1 in 8 risk of developing breast cancer in females in the U.K in lifetime. Table 1: Shows estimated risk of developing breast cancer by age, females, UK, 2008 UK, 2008 Adopted from: www.cancerresearch.uk http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/types/breast/riskfactors/ Date accessed: 20/01/11 The table 2 below shows that more deaths happens in females due to breast cancer than males as it can be seen from the table only 69 males died in 2008 in compare to 12,047 females. Table 2: Shows the number of deaths and mortality rates in the UK in 2008. Adopted from: www.cancerresearch.uk http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/types/breast/mortality/#age Date accessed: 20/01/11 The figure below shows the incidence and mortality rates from female breast cancer in EU countries. As it can be seen from the table Belgium has the highest rates of incidence in female breast cancer. Figure 1 above is a graph of incidence and mortality rates in EU. Adopted from: www.cancerresearch.uk http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/types/breast/incidence/ Date accessed: 20/01/11 1.3 . Breast cancer Pathophysiology: 1.3.1 Aetiology: Some of the suspected aetiological factors which influence the cases of breast cancer are family history, obesity, age, oral contraceptives and alcohol. Family history: A woman who has a family member with breast cancer increases double the risk of getting breast cancer in compare to a woman with no family history (Lancet, 2001). Obesity: obesity increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer by up to 30%, since levels of hormones rises with excess body fat such as oestrogen and insulin these are the common features of cancers. Age: older women are at higher risk. Particularly women aged 50-69 are most at risk, predominantly those with a late menopause. Oral contraceptives: increases the risk by approximately a quarter but since people who uses are commonly younger women, therefore the risk is fairly low. Alcohol: drinking alcohol as less as one alcoholic drink each day increases the risk of breast cancer by around 12%. (Cancer Research U.K, 2008) Some other factors include: Lesions to DNA such as genetic mutations. There is link between mutations that can lead to breast cancer and oestrogen exposure, found out by carrying out experiments. Another factor is when a body fails to carry out immune surveillance; it is a theory in which the immune system gets rid of malignant cells throughout oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Other factor is inherited defects in DNA repair genes, such as Ã¢â¬ BRCA1Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬ BRCA2Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬ TP53Ã¢â¬ (Adams, et al., 2011). Figure 2 above shows the percentage of different genes with associated risk. Figure adopted from: Wooster and Webber, (2003) Date accessed: 12/04/11 Moreover according to many authors there is a potential link between the HPV and breast cancer. 1.4. Human papillomavirus and Cancer: HPV genome is normally found in the cytoplasm of infected tissues however, the DNA of HPV types that cause cancer are integrated into the host genome. HPV causes disruption and loss of some of the viral genes for example (L1 and L2 genes) and also increases the expression of the early genes (Wang, 2007; Mera, 1997). Oncoproteins E5 interacts with MHC I and prevents its transport to the cell surface therefore infected cells escapes the immune system consequently allowing the virus to establish persistent infections and thus progressing to cancer. E6 targets p53 for degradation and therefore prevents apoptosis of abnormal cells, whereas E7 inactivates Rb (retinoblastoma) function, which results in abnormal cell proliferation and disturbs the normal cell cycle regulation (Wang, 2007; WHO, 2006; Mera, 1997). You read "Association of Human papillomavirus and Breast Tumours" in category "Essay examples" P53 and Rb are tumour suppressor genes which stop tumours from developing (Mera, 1997). Incorporation of virus into host cell increases and sustains the growth of both virus and the host cell, thus resulting in the alteration of infected host cells into malignant cells (Mera, 1997; Wang, 2007) and ultimately invasive cancer. Figure 3 above shows different genes in HPV. Adopted from: Symptoms of HPV 2010 symptomsofhpv.net/113/hpv-16/ Date accessed: 07/04/11 Table 9 below shows the function of different genes within the HPV virus: Gene/RegionFunction E1/E2Code for proteins which control the function of E6 and E7 genes. E4Function largely unknown but may control virus release from cell. E5Codes for a hydrophobic protein which enhances immortalisation of the cell. E6Codes for proteins which inhibit negative regulators of the cell cycle .E6 products inhibit p53 which is a transcription factor for apoptosis (programmed cell death). E7Codes for products whichbind to the retinoblastoma tumour suppressorproteins thereby permitting the cell to progress through the cell cycle in the absence of normal mitogenic signals. L1/L2Code for structural proteins and formation of complete virus particles. LCRNecessary for normal virus replication and control of gene expression. Adopted from: Eurocytology http://www.eurocytology.eu/static/eurocytology/eng/cervical/LP1ContentMcontA1.html Date accessed: 19/03/11 The HPV (human papillomavirus) is a member of the papillomaviridae family and has a double stranded circular DNA genome (Wang, 2007). These viruses are small in size with 8kbp-long DNA genome and have no envelope (WHO, 2006). HPV genome contains early (E) and the late genes (L) which codes for early proteins (E1-E7), late proteins (L1 and L2) and a non coding long control region (LCR) (WHO, 2006; Mera, 1997; Govan, 2008). 1.4.1. High risk and low risk HPV types: There are more than one hundred different HPV types that have been discovered (WHO, 2006) and these are divided into high risk and low risk types. HPV 16, 18, 31 and 45 are some high risk HPV types associated with most of the cancer, while HPV 6 and 11 are low risk non-oncogenic HPV types (Brown, et al., 2005; Govan, 2008). Table3: the following table shows some high risk, low risk and potentially risk HPVs. ClassificationHPV types High-risk16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 Low-risk82, 6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70 Potentially high Ã¢â¬ârisk26, 53 Source: Govan (2008) HPV 6 and 11 are linked with up to 90% genital warts (Von Krogh, 2011), nevertheless after the examination of 55 genital wart samples from Slovenia, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the authors concluded that HPV 6 and 11 genotypes were detected in 96.4% of genital warts patients (Potocnik, et al., 2007). 1.5. Signs and Symptoms: Changes that could arise due to a breast cancer are: A change in the size or shape of a breast A lump or thickening in an area of the breast Dimpling of the skin A change in the shape of the nipple, particularly if it turns in, sinks into the breast or becomes irregular in shape A blood stained discharge from the nipple (Dixon, 2005; Breast cancer, 2008). Figure 3a: above shows the symptoms of breast cancer Source: Healthbase (2008) http://blog.healthbase.com/2008_09_01_archive.html Accessed date: 11/04/2011 Normal anatomy of the breast: Female breast anatomy The structure of female breast is mainly made up of fat and connective tissue, but also contains milk ducts, lymph nodes, blood vessels and structures known as lobes and lobules (Rosen, 2009). Figure 4 above shows normal anatomy of breast tissue. The above figure adopted from: Mayoclinic (2009) http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/breast-cancer-early-stage/BC00001 Date accessed: 8 April 2011. Lobules and ducts Every breast has 12 to 20 lobules that protrude from the nipple and holds small alveoli; the lobules are connected together by a network of thin ducts (Rosen, 2009). Figure 5 above shows different parts in the female breast The above figure adopted from: Mayoclinic (2009) http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/breast-cancer-early-stage/BC00001 Date accessed: 8 April 2011. Stromata Spaces around the lobules and ducts are filled with fatty tissue, ligaments and connective tissue (stromata). The size of the breast is determined by the amount of fat it contains, the breast tissue is also sensitive to cyclic changes in hormone levels (Rosen, 2009). Figure 6 above shows the position of stromata in female breast. The figure adopted from: Mayoclinic (2009). http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/breast-cancer-early-stage/BC00001 Date accessed: 8 April 2011. Muscles Breasts are muscle free tissues, muscles lie beneath the breasts separating them from the ribs (Rosen, 2009). The above figure adopted from: Mayoclinic (2009) http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/breast-cancer-early-stage/BC00001 Date accessed: 8 April 2011. Arteries and capillaries Blood supply all the essential nutrients and oxygen to the breast tissue through arteries, capillaries and small blood vessels (Rosen, 2009). Figure 8 above shows the position of capillaries and arteries in and around the breast. Figure adopted from: Mayoclinic, (2009) http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/breast-cancer-early-stage/BC00001 Date accessed: 8 April 2011. Lymph nodes and lymph ducts The lymphatic system contains blood vessels, lymph ducts and lymph nodes that helps fight infection, lymph nodes are present behind the breastbone, under the armpit and in other parts of the body engulfs harmful substances that are in the lymphatic system and safely get rid of them (Rosen, 2009; Mayoclinic, 2009). Figure 9 above shows the position of the lymph nodes and lymph ducts. The above figure adopted from: Mayoclinic, 2009 http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/breast-cancer-early-stage/BC00001 Date accessed: 8 April 2011. 1.4. Different types of Breast cancers: There are different types of breast cancer for example ductal and lobular and it depends on the type of tissue that it is derived from. Table 3.1 below shows the list of different types of breast cancer: DCIS Ã¢â¬â ductal carcinoma in situ LCIS Ã¢â¬â lobular carcinoma in situ Invasive ductal breast cancer Invasive lobular breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer PagetÃ¢â¬â¢s disease Breast cancer in men The following figures show some of the main types of the cancer that begins in different areas of the breast for example the ducts, the lobules, or in some cases, the tissue in between. These figures also show the different types of breast cancer, including non-invasive, invasive, metastatic and recurrent breast cancers. a. Ductal Carcinoma in situ (DCIS) Range of Ductal Carcinoma in situ (DCIS) Figures: 10 and 11 above show normal breast with nonÃ¢â¬âinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in an enlarged crossÃ¢â¬âsection of the duct. Adopted from: Breast cancer (2008) http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/types/dcis/diagnosis.jsp Accessed date: 20/01/2011 Breast profileABCDEFG DuctsLobulesDilated section of duct to hold milkNippleFatPectralis major muscleChest wall/ rib cage EnlargementDuctal cancer cellsNormal lobular cellsBasement membraneLumen ( centre of duct) Table 4: shows the annotation of the above figures (Trentham-Dietz, et al., 2011) b. Lobular Carcinoma in situ (LCIS Figure: 12 above shows normal breast with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) in an enlarged crossÃ¢â¬âsection of the lobule. Adopted from: Breast cancer (2008) http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/types/ilc/tests/diagnosing.jsp Accessed date: 20/01/2011 Table 5 shows the annotation of the figure 12. Breast profileABCDEFG DuctsLobulesDilated section of duct to hold milkNippleFatPectralis major muscleChest wall/ rib cage EnlargementNormal Ductal cellsLobular cancer cellsBasement membrane (Trentham-Dietz et al., 2011) a.Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) Figure 13 above shows normal breast with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in an enlarged crossÃ¢â¬âsection of the duct. Adopted from: Breast cancer (2008) http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/types/ilc/tests/diagnosing.jsp Accessed date: 20/01/2011 Breast profileABCDEFG DuctsLobulesDilated section of duct to hold milkNippleFatPectralis major muscleChest wall/ rib cage EnlargementNormal duct cellsductal cancer cells breaking through the basement membrane Basement membrane Table 6 shows the annotation of the figure 13. (Trentham-Dietz, et al., 2011) c. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC) The above figure 14 shows normal breast with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in an enlarged crossÃ¢â¬âsection of the lobule. Adopted from: Breast cancer (2008) http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/types/ilc/tests/diagnosing.jsp Accessed date: 20/01/2011 Table 7 shows the annotation of the figure 14. Breast profileABCDEFG DuctsLobulesDilated section of duct to hold milkNippleFatPectralis major muscleChest wall/ rib cage EnlargementNormal cellsLobular cancer cells breaking through the basement membraneBasement membrane (Trentham-Dietz, et al., 2011) Following are some examples of non-invasive cell growths: d. Non-Invasive Cell Growth Subtypes Ã¢â¬â Solid Figure: 15 shows A cancer cells B basement membrane Adopted from: Breast cancer (2008) Accessed date: 20/01/2011 e.Non-Invasive Cell Growth Subtypes Ã¢â¬â Cribriform Figure: 16 above shows (A) cancer cells (B) basement membrane (C) lumen (centre of duct) Adopted from: Breast cancer (2008) Accessed date: 20/01/2011 f. Non-Invasive Cell Growth Subtypes Ã¢â¬â Papillary Figure: 17 above shows (A) cancer cells (B) basement membrane (C) lumen (centre of duct) Adopted from: Breast cancer (2008) Accessed date: 20/01/2011 g. Non-Invasive Cell Growth Subtypes Ã¢â¬â Comedo Figure: 18 above shows (A) living cancer cells (B) dying cancer cells (C) cell debris (necrosis) Adopted from: Breast cancer (2008) Accessed date: 20/01/2011 h. Vascular and Lymphatic Invasion Figure: 20 above shows normal breast with cancer cells invading the lymph channels and blood vessels in the breast tissue Adopted from: Breast cancer (2008) Accessed date: 20/01/2011 Table 8 shows the annotation of the above figure Breast profileABCDEF Blood vesselsLymphatic channels EnlargementNormal duct cellscancer cellsBasement membraneLymphatic channelBlood vesselBreast tissue 1.4. Diagnostic tests: Diagnosis of the breast cancer incorporates x-rays and screening tests and following are some of the important diagnostic tests that can be carried out before and after symptoms of breast cancer. Tests: Mammogram: A mammogram is the main screening test for asymptomatic patients who are over the age of 40 as well as for symptomatic adult patients (Bao, 2011).This test has a high sensitivity and specificity (Banks, 2004). If a mammogram does not find out an abnormality in patients with a clinically detected breast mass, additional imaging ultrasound and/or MRI should be carried out for further evaluation (Bao, 2011). Outcome: The results are indicative of malignancy include: an irregular speculated mass, clustered micro-calcifications, and linear branching calcifications (Banks, 2004; breast cancer, 2010). The above figure 21 shows how mammography is carried out. Figure 21 adopted from: Breast cancer (2010) http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/testing/types/mammograms/ Accessed date: 02/04/2011 Breast Ultrasound: Ultrasound sends high-frequency sound waves through the breast and changes them into images on a screen. The ultrasound technician places a sound-emitting probe on the breast to carry out the test and there is no radiation involved (Matsuzaki, et al., 2010). Outcome: The results are indicative of malignancy include: a hypo echoic mass, an irregular mass with internal calcifications, and enlarged auxiliary lymph nodes (breast cancer 2010; Moss, 1999). The above figure 22 shows how ultrasound is carried out. adopted from: Breast cancer (2010) http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/testing/types/ultrasound.jsp Accessed date: 02/04/2011 Breast MRI: MRI uses magnets and radio to produce detailed cross sectional images of the inside of the body. MRI screens high-risk women (breast cancer, 2010). The Sensitivity is 88% to 91%. Specificity is about 67% (Bluemke, 2004). Outcome: The results are indicative of malignancy include: a heterogeneously enhancing area and significant architectural distortion (Bluemke, 2004). The above figure 23 shows how MRI is carried out. adopted from: Breast cancer (2010) http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/testing/types/mri/ Accessed date: 02/04/2011 Biopsy: There are different types of biopsy techniques and among these techniques Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is the least invasive procedure and has high sensitivity and specificity (Dayal, et al., 2011). FNA is good for quick diagnosis of malignancy. Nonetheless, core biopsy is generally favoured, as it effectively differentiates between pre-invasive and invasive disease and is less chance getting inadequate sampling (Dayal, et al., 2011). Outcome: Invasive ductal carcinoma is responsible for almost 80% of all breast cancers, cords of tumour cells among associated glandular formation, which make varying degrees of fibrotic response. Whereas invasive lobular carcinoma, small tumour cells that invade past the basement membrane of the lobules and form an Ã¢â¬Å"Indian fileÃ¢â¬ between collagen bundles, usually appears as well-differentiated tumour cells that display tubule formation (Dayal, et al., 2011). 1.5. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this project was to evaluate the association of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and breast cancer, additionally to collect the studies that support the presence of HPV DNA in patients with breast lesions worldwide. The archived samples diagnosed with breast carcinoma, will be used to extract the DNA by DNA Extraction method which could be further used for amplifying this DNA using PCR to detect HPV genome. This will ascertain the role of this virus in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and will also help the scientist for further investigation of this virus on biology of cancer. The following is the methodology of my project as how I carried out the experiment and extracted the DNA. 2. Methodology: The methodology incorporates materials and method, health and safety, ethical issues and statistical analysis. 2.1. Method and Materials: The following table 9 shows the materials that have been used to extract the DNA. Materials Measurements Universal tubes 20 ml, 5ml Epindorf tube 1.5 ml, 500ul Gilson pipetts 2x 5- 50ul, 2x 0.1 Ã¢â¬â 2.5 ul,2x 100 Ã¢â¬â 1000ul, 1x 20 Ã¢â¬â 200ul Dry heat block ( incubator) Vortex Waterbath ( 37c) Centrifuge and microfuge 70% of alcohol to avoid contamination and spray bottle Ice box 10. Thermometer( to measure the temperature) 11. Spectrophotometer( OD reader) 12. Pipett tips 13. Tissue and Cell LysisSolution 600ul (60ml) 14. Proteinase K4ul ( 200ul) 15. RNase A2ul (400ul) 16. Protein Precipitation Reagent300ul (60ml) 17. Isopropanol1ml (2ml) 18. Ethanol70% 19. TE Buffer35ul (8ml) 2.2. DNA purification method from tissue: The following is the method used to extract the DNA from the archived sample of breast tissue. Lysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Tissue i.Placed 10-50 mg of 10- to 35-Ã µm thick paraffin sections into an appropriate tube. If using a larger amount of tissue, adjust the reagent volumes accordingly. ii.Diluted 4 Ã µl of Ã¢â¬Å"Proteinase KÃ¢â¬ into 600 Ã µl of Ã¢â¬Å"Tissue and Cell Lysis SolutionÃ¢â¬ for each sample, and mixed. iii.Added 600 Ã µl of Ã¢â¬Å"Tissue and Cell Lysis SolutionÃ¢â¬ containing the Ã¢â¬Å"Proteinase KÃ¢â¬ to the sample and mixed. iv.Incubated at 65Ã °C for 30 minutes; followed by a brief (10 seconds) vortex mix. v.Cooled the samples to 37Ã °C and added 2 Ã µl of Ã¢â¬Å"RNase AÃ¢â¬ to the sample; mixed thoroughly. vi.Incubated at 37Ã °C for 30 minutes. vii.Placed the samples on ice for 3-5 minutes and then preceded with total DNA precipitation (below). Precipitation of Total DNA Added 300 Ã µl of Ã¢â¬Å"MPC Protein Precipitation ReagentÃ¢â¬ to 600 Ã µl of lysed sample and vortex vigorously for 10 seconds. ix.Pellet the debris by centrifugation at 4Ã °C for 10 minutes at ?10,000 x g in a microcentrifuge. If the resultant pellet was clear, small, of loose, added an additional 25 Ã µl of Ã¢â¬Å"MPC Protein Precipitation ReagentÃ¢â¬ , mixed, and pellet the debris again. x.Transferred the supernatant to a clean microcentrifuge tube and discarded the pellet. xi.Added 500 Ã µl of Ã¢â¬Å"isopropanolÃ¢â¬ to the recovered supernatant. Inverted the tube 30-40 times. xii.Pellet the DNA by centrifugation at 4Ã °C for 10 minutes in a microcentrifuge. Carefully poured off the Ã¢â¬Å"isopropanolÃ¢â¬ without dislodging the DNA pellet. Rinsed twice with 70% Ã¢â¬Å"ethanolÃ¢â¬ , being careful to not dislodge the pellet. Centrifuged briefly if the pellet was dislodged. Removed all of the residual ethanol with a pipet. xv.Resuspended the DNA in 35 Ã µl of Ã¢â¬Å"TE BufferÃ¢â¬ . Source: Epicentre Biotechnologies 3. Result: DNA is extracted by a DNA histological processing using PCR and DNA extraction techniques. These are techniques used to extract, amplify and copy small segments of DNA. It is fast and inexpensive because significant amounts of a sample of DNA are necessary for molecular and genetic analyses (Mendizabal et al., 2008). 3.1. DNA Extraction: DNA was extracted by using DNA extraction protocol written in the method section. In the DNA extraction different solutions were used for example Proteinase K enzyme is used to digest protein and to remove protein contamination from DNA and to get to the pure DNA (Ebeling, et al., 1974). Also different machines incubators, vortex and centrifuge were used to break down cell walls. Following the DNA extraction PCR is used to amplify the DNA to find HPV genome. 3.2. PCR: Using the PCR to amplify a segment of DNA firstly the sample is heated so that the DNA denatures or divides into two pieces of single-stranded DNA. After that an enzyme called Ã¢â¬Å"Taq polymeraseÃ¢â¬ synthesizes Ã¢â¬â builds Ã¢â¬â two new strands of DNA, using the original strands as templates. This process causes the duplication of the original DNA. Each of the molecules now carries one old and one new strand of DNA. After that each of these strands can be utilized to form two new copies, and the process continues in this manner. More than one billion exact copies of the original DNA segment is achieved by repeating the cycle of denaturing and synthesizing new DNA 35 or 40 times. This whole process of PCR is automated and can be done in just a few hours. A thermocycler machine directs this process and is programmed to change the temperature of the reaction every few minutes to cause DNA denaturing and synthesis. Source: Bruce FoukeÃ¢â¬â¢s lab Accessed date: 20/01/11. There are many different types of PCR for example conventional PCR assays using consensus primers and highly sensitive Real-Time PCR (Hedau, et al., 2011). Following are the result of the DNA extracted using a machine called nanoviewer. Many concentration of the DNA extracted are within the good range which is 1.8 Ã¢â¬â 2.0. This indicates that the samples have not been contaminated with protein. The following table 10 shows the result of the DNA extracted: Breast Tissue sample numberConcentration ng/ulResults 33101.5 ng/ulA260/280 = 1.990 847.5 ng/ulA260/280 = 1.939 7733 ng/ulA260/280 = 1.886 5415.9 ng/ulA260/280 = 1.904 76105.5 ng/ulA260/280 = 1.835 2593.0 ng/ulA260/280 = 1.958 1229.5 ng/ulA260/280 = 1.735 1326.0 ng/ulA260/280 = 1.877 7143.0 ng/ulA260/280 = 2.014 4. Health and Safety: The health and safety procedures were followed according to the requirement of the laboratory for this project and a copy of COSSH assessment was given to the laboratory technical staff and to the project supervisor 5.Ethical Issues: Approval of UKÃ¢â¬â¢S ethical committee regarding the usage of the breast tissue samples has already been granted to the project supervisor and hence there is no need of further ethical approval for this project. 6. Literature search: To understand the scope of the HPV and breast cancer very well 15 abstracts have been submitted at the beginning to the project supervisor that were conducted by many journals and research papers. 7. Statistical analysis: This project is a laboratory based and therefore does not require any statistical analysis to be carried out. 8. Treatment: Breast cancer is treated with surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and drugs. There are many drugs that are used to either treat or reduce the risk of breast cancer and following are some example of these drugs: 8.1. Drugs: Table11 below shows the list of drugs used for breast cancer treatment Herceptin (chemical name: Trastuzumab ) Tamofen (chemical name: Tamoxifen) Arimidex (chemical name: anastrozole) Aromasin (chemical name: exemestane) Avastin (chemical name: bevacizumab) Carboplatin (brand name: Paraplatin) Cytoxan (chemical name: cyclophosphamide) Daunorubicin (brand names: Cerubidine, DaunoXome) Doxil (chemical name: doxorubicin) Ellence (chemical name: epirubicin) Thiotepa (brand name: Thioplex) Trelstar (chemical name: triptorelin) Tykerb (chemical name: lapatinib) Vincristine (brand names: Oncovin, Vincasar PES, Vincrex) Xeloda (chemical name: capecitabine) Some of the drugs that are used are explained below. Tamoxifen: is a drug that uses SERMs (selective oestrogen receptor modulator) that attaches to the oestrogen receptors in breast cells and blocks the effects of oestrogen (Lacroix, et al., 2010). Uses: to treat men and both pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women, typically is used to: shrink large, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancers before surgery reduce breast cancer risk in undiagnosed women at higher-than-average risk of developing breast cancer However Tamoxifen is very cost effective (Noah-Vanhoucke, et al., 2011) Side effects: irregular menstrual cycles vaginal discharge or bleeding depression endometrial cancer 8.2. Trastuzumab: is a drug that uses HER2 (human epidermal receptor 2) inhibitors that works against HER2-positive breast cancers by blocking the ability of the cancer cells to receive chemical signals that tell the cells to grow. Uses: treat metastatic, HER2-positive breast cancer (Barok, et al., 2011) shrink large, advanced-stage, HER2-positive cancers before surgery Side effects: diarrhea anemia abdominal pain 9. Cancer prevention: 9.1. HPV Vaccines and Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer and sexual behaviour of population are directly proportional to each other, recent study shows that in the U.K HPV prevalence and possession increased consistently with increasing numbers of lifetime sexual partners, regular partners, and new partners in the last 5 years (Almonte, 2011). The two prophylactic vaccines Cervarix and Gardasil consist of virus-like particles (VLPS), these are recombinant viral capsids made by expressing HPV 16 and 18 L1 proteins in insect cells through the baculovirous (cervarix) or HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 L1 proteins in yeast cells (Gardasil) (Kahn 2005; Wang 2007; Kirnbauer et al., 1993). The virus-like particles (VLPS) contains no viral DNA and therefore would not in any case cause an infection or cervical cancer in recipients (Wang, 2007). Cervarix: GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) produces cervarix vaccine; it is a bivalent containing HPV 16 and 18 L1 virus-like particle vaccines that works against HPV 16 and 18 infections and cervical cancer (Bayas et al. 2008; Govan 2008). A phase II study illustrated that Cervarix was 91.6% efficacious against occasional infections and 100% effective against persistent infection (Harper et al. 2004). Cervarix is made up of an ASO4 adjuvant which contains aluminium hydroxide and 3-O-deacylated monophosporyl lipid (MPL), ASO4 helps improve the immune system (Bayas et al., 2008). Gardasil: Gardasil is developed by Merck and Co; it is a quadrivalent vaccine containing HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 virus-like particles (Adams, et al., 2007; FDA, 2006). A phase II efficacy study of Gardasil results demonstrated that the vaccine has 90% efficacy in preventing incident HPV infection and cervaical cancer (Viller, et al., 2005). In June 2006 Gardasil was licensed by the FDA for use in young and adult females between the ages of 9 to 26 for the prevention of cervical cancer, genital warts and precancerous lesions (FDA, 2006), it was also approved in September 2008 for the prevention of vaginal and vulvar cancers caused by HPV 16 and 18 (FDA, 2008). Both of the above vaccines are given in a series of three 0.5ml immunisations over a time period of six months prior to a young person becomes sexually active (Long III, et al., 2007; WHO, 2007). Figure 24 shows how the HPV DNA is detected in cervical cancer. The above figure adopted from: Global Link (2008) Date accessed 07/04/11 9.2. Breast Cancer Vaccine: Vaccine has been developed firstly against cervical cancer and now the scientists are trying to develop a vaccine against breast cancer, however scientists are trying to develop a vaccine which could be useful against all the different strains of HPV such as 16, 18, 33 worldwide (Armstrong, 2010). Prognosis: Table 14 shows the five year survival rates for colorectal and breast cancer. (Howlader, et al., 2011). There is only 23% survival rate for distant spread in breast cancer this shows that there is a need for more research to develop a vaccine against different strains of breast cancers and to treat these cancers affectively and avoid so many deaths. 10. Discussion: Breast cancer is a malignant tumour that starts from cells of the breast. Cancer occurs due to mutations in the genes responsible for controlling the growth of cells thus cells are unable to function properly (Sariego, 2010). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered as an aetiological agent for many cancers such as cervical cancer, breast cancer etc. High risk HPV types causes cancer by integrating into the host genome and causes disruption and loss of some of the viral genes such as L1 and L2 genes and also increases the expression of the early genes (Wang, 2007; Mera, 1997). The aim of the research was to find out the association of HPV with breast cancer involving DNA extracted from archived breast tissue samples using DNA extraction method. This DNA sample could be amplified using PCR to find HPV genome specifically targeting E1 gene. This is conjunction with other studies in which samples were amplified using consensus primers CpI CpIIG and targeted the E1 gene in a region conserved for 99% of most common HPV subtypes (Mendizabal, et al., 2008). Given that the tissue samples were not fresh but were paraffin embedded which are not as good as fresh tissue samples because formalin fixation could denature the tissue during sectioning and also the DNA extracted from FFPE (formalin fixed paraffin embedded) tissues are usually at low concentration and disjointed (Shi, et al., 2006). Additionally the experiment was carried out very successfully because most of the results that have been obtained were between the ranges of 1.8 to 2.0, which are regarded as pure DNA sample and therefore contains no protein contamination. A positive and negative control should be carried out while amplifying the DNA because a positive control makes sure the technique is working satisfactorily by using a reacting material relatively similar to the test material and negative control tests the specificity of the reaction and ensures there are no false positives (Mendizabal, et al., 2008). Although good results have been achieved however there were some variations in the purity of DNA extracted from the breast tissue samples and that depends on many different factors such as some tissue samples were darker in colour than normal which suggests the samples were not as fresh therefore it gave a lower result than the normal range of 1.8 to 2.0. Additionally the low results also depended on the way the whole experiment was carried out, there had been some mistakes in adding or mixing different solutions and mistakes were constantly recorded in the lab book therefore the same mistakes were not repeated again. Moreover many different techniques have been learnt from this project including the usage of centrifuge, vortex, incubator and nanoviewer. Carrying out this project has provided a full understanding on how to engage in the practical work which is beneficial in future laboratory projects, this is an ongoing work by the supervisors of the project to try and identify the association between the HPV and the breast cancer, if successful then a broader vaccine could be developed against all different strains of HPVs such as HPV16, 18 worldwide and to cure not only breast cancer but also many different types of cancers such as, cervical cancer, head and neck Squamous cell carcinoma, genital warts etc. This will reduce the amount of vaccination given to each patient and also it will have tremendous effect on the quality of life and will solve many problems and save many lives. Furthermore many studies have been carried out to find out the presence of HPV in breast tissue. Some were successful by getting 86.21% positivity of HPV infection in breast cancer (de Villers et al., 2005) this was in conjunction with other studies that have been successful in obtaining high positive result (Hening, et al., 1999; Gumus, et al., 2006; Kan, et al., 2006, Li, et al., 2002). Additionally according to a largest investigation on breast carcinoma specifically analysing mammoplasty and fibroadenoma specimens as a control group the authors were able to detect HPV DNA in 24.5% of the breast carcinomas but were unable to detect any in benign breast specimens (Damin, et al., 2004). However other authors have either achieved low positivity (Kroupis, et al., 2006; Tsai, et al., 2005) or HPV was totally absent ( Lindel, et al., 2007; Gopalkrishna, et al., 1996). Therefore there are two different views on the association of HPV with breast cancer as it has been indicated by the above studies, which is normal because scientists can have different opinions sometimes. 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(2004) Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in breast cancer of patients with cervical cancer history. J Clin Virol 31, 292Ã¢â¬â297. 61. World Health Organisation (2008) Globocan Fast Stats. [online] Available at http://globocan.iarc.fr/factsheets/populations/factsheet.asp?uno=900 [Accessed 2 Jan 2011]. 62. World Health Organisation (2006) State of the art new vaccines: Research and Development. [online] Available at: http://www.who.int/vaccines-documents/DocsPDF06/814.pdf [Accessed 29th March 2011]. 63. Wooster, R., Weber, B.L. (2003) Breast and Ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med, 348 2339-2347. 64. Xiaofeng, Bi. NiLi., Zhang, Y., Zhao. P., Zheng, T., Dai, Min., (2010) Human papillomavirus infection and sporadic breast carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 126 (2), 515- 520. How to cite Association of Human papillomavirus and Breast Tumours, Essay examples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
The Significance of the Cross The significance of the cross has changed over the years. In the beginning before Christ gave himself up for our sins the cross was viewed as a sign of pain and suffrage. The Romans used to execute criminals and enemies of the state on them. The were hung along the road showing the sarrows of people. It was the most shameful way to die. The pain and anguish it caused was unbearable and feared by all. Except Roman citizens. The pain and shame of death on the cross was so bad that the Romans would not inflict it on their citizens. In their society it was like the electric chair is today. Except for the fact that we inflict that pain on any human being. The Romans new of the pain that it caused human beings but yet they still inflicted it on people. The cross was a sign of the cruelty of the Roman Empire. It showed what they believed in as a society. Roman was not a society of pity, forgives, or any other act of caring towards human beings that were not Romans. The cross showed their society as that of almost barbaric tribes. The cross and the gladiatorial coliseums were the same thing, ways to punish and kill their enemies. The Romans used this way of execution for Christ. They put him up onto the cross and changed its whole meaning for millions of people. With that one act the cross lost most of its spur to someone's dignity for a Christian. Because of that act the cross has become a sign of salvation. The followers of Christ see the cross as their redemption and their only way of entering the Kingdom of God, Heaven. The cross is a symbol that people use to remind themselves that there is a reason to go on. The cross means they can now enter heaven because Jesus died for them one of the most brutal ways ever. The cross now is a reason for people to live the life that Christ lived. It gives them hope and joy every time they look at. The cross is still a sign of pain to people, but that pain is greatly overshadowed by the love for them that is shown on it. Everyone who looks upon the cross cannot help but feel the pain Jesus went through for their souls to have the ability to be joined with him in Gods greatest gift to man, Heaven. The anguish inflicted on the cross does not equal what the act gives to everyone who tries to live his life as best he can. The cross was once a sign of the ultimate shame. It was pain in its purest form, but now that great pain has been overshadow by the sacrifice born of love. The ultimate show of love has made the cross what I believe it is today, the only sign that shows the ability of salvation and a life in heaven.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Offshoring Essays Offshoring Essay Offshoring Essay International Business Offshoring Introduction Offshoring also known as offshore outsourcing, is defined by firm activities being geographically relocated from the firms domestic country to a lower-cost foreign country (WTO, 2013). Frequently, the operations are offshored from industrialized countries to less-developed countries in order to reduce labor expenses and to leverage the cost advantage. The aim of this report is to explore on the aspect of the offshoring and answer the question is it beneficial to the society. In the further part this report will evaluate on the aspect of reshoring as the process of companies eturning back to home country that is currently taking place. The aim will be to answer the question whether it is as a result of the correction to offshoring or a reaction to a change in circumstances and a rethinking of strategy by companies. Offshoring concept and potential benefits and drawbacks to the society The concept of the offshoring in the increasingly dynamic global market has been introduced as an answer to Multi National Enterprises (here and after MNE) how to stay competitive growing. In the era of globalization and economic turmoil, the idea f gaining competitive advantage has become as a priority. However, shifting production has raised the arguments against the exportation of the Jobs from the home country. This can cause higher unemployment and the exclusion particular jobs from the market. Table 1. 1 presents the percentage of lost Jobs due to offshoring. In some cases, such as Portugal, offshoring accounts for more than 50% (Figure 1) as a reason of lost Jobs (WTO, 2011). Figure 1: Total Job losses due to offshoring announced in the ERM, by country, in 2005. Daniels and Sullivan (2013) pointed that reason for MNE to move low-skilled Jobs to hird part country is to lower the price for their products and services. The price competitiveness determinates competitive advantage and growth of the company. As a result growing company can create new Jobs, higher-skilled and better paid. Recent trends, however, show that in order to stay competitive, MNE are ready to shift more Research of 2,700 US and European companies showed that 700,000 higher-skilled jobs were outsourced in 2009 and another 250,000 will be through 2014 (Daniels, Sullivan, 2013). As Roberts pointed out (2013), to stay balanced with the population rowth between 2002 and 2011 US economy needed around 14 million new Jobs. However, at the end of 2011 there were only 1 million more Jobs than in 2002. Within this period 3,5 million of middle class manufacturing Jobs were lost. 1,188,000 new waitresses and bartenders Jobs were created, lowly paid service Jobs that cannot be offshored. MNE seek for offshoring not only to gain production cost efficiency but also to reach other resources hardly or not available internally. Study of Oshri and Kotlarsky (2009) on strategic drivers and risks of offshoring (Figure 2), based on nterview with Chief Information Officers (CIOs) and Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) of 263 European leading companies unveiled the priority drivers for offshoring. In contrast to common belief, Clos and CFOs pointed that access to skills not available internally is more important (64%) that cost reduction factor (41 (Oshri and Kotlarsky, 2011). This can be observed in the example of India. Today Indias higher education institutions produce 4. million skilled workforces annually (Business Standard, 2013), many of them specialized in software engineering, computer chip design, and code writing. This of course affects employees from other well developed countries as Indians specialists and engineers are lower paid. Figure 2: Key drivers of offshoring, source: Oshri and Kotlarsky (2009) Another issue that needs to be considered is the requalification and ability to adapt to Job market by redundant workers. High unemployment causes increasing costs for the government, either to retrain or provide with the benefits for the unemployed. People provided with benefits might struggle to raise money for their children education. They, without sufficient funds to gain higher qualification, may feel excluded from the society. Such situation certainly can affect productivity of whole generation. Furthermore, it was rightly noted by Roberts (2013) that short term strategy of Americans companies to reach profits cause them not only losing their best employees but also the consumers who buy their products. Employees being unemployed or doing lower paid Jobs are less presence in the consumer market. They also provide fewer retirement savings for future investments. Reshoring concept and drivers for MNE Due to increasing costs of offshoring number of businesses are turning to new trend of reshoring, coming back with the production to home country. In the last decade wages in China has gone up by 10-20% a year, faster than the labor productivity. The Chinese government has set a target for annual increases in the minimum wage of 13% until 2015. Moreover, a stronger Chinese currency has made the costs even higher (The Economist, 2013). On the other hand, the costs in the US are falling. It has been caused by lowering wages in some states due to high unemployment and agreements between businesses and unions (The Economist, 2013). This along with the increasing productivity, falling energy prices and come back with their operations. Additionally, oil price (Figure 3) that has been increasing in the last few years. As a result, cost of transportation from China or India has risen significantly. Figure 3: Figure 1. US crude oil prices (based on average prices paid by US refiners for all grades of oil based on EIA data) converted to 2012$ using CPI-Urban data from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Due to high costs, in 2012, 37% of American companies with annual sales above $1 billion were planning or actively considering moving production back to US. Further 48% of companies with sales above $10 billion came out as reshorers. Besides the increasing costs of offshoring, many companies faced the dilemma of dislocation of RD hubs from manufacturing sites. In many cases this causes negative effects. Many companies are reluctant to shift their innovation sites to other countries in order to not lose the valuable known-how and intellectual property. Some of the companies, looking for cost cut, moved production to other locations, most often closer to their borders. This new trend, called nearshoring, relates to the shifting the production and service activity to geographically closer locations. Figure 4 shows three clusters where the companies, called clients, located their facilities in distance- limited locations (Carmel, Abbott, 2007). Number of US companies shifted their operations to Mexico and South America. The average wage in Mexico is slightly higher than that in China. The costs of transporting products to US are far lower that from China, and the time of shipping from Mexico is counted in days, not weeks (The Economist, 2013). Figure 4: Global distribution of nearshore destinations and their division into three clusters. Conclusions and Recommendations As a conclusion, number of MNE from developed countries moved production sites and services to lower cost countries. This has been done in order to gain and keep competitive advantage over other competitors. However, over the past few years, businesses have faced increasing costs of operating in offshored countries. Despite that production costs in US might still be higher than in China, the gap has narrowed substantially, and it seems no longer to be a clinching reason for manufacturing in the emerging markets. Separate locations for innovation centers manufacture sites appeared to be a challenge for some companies as well. Problem their face is that host countries such as China, do not provide sufficient regulations to protect the intellectual property. Some firms are concerned about moving to China because of their fear to lose their technology and know-how. Some MNE decided to come back to home country, others relocated their sites to lower production cost countries closer to their borders. However, the aim of the nearshoring is the same as offshoring, cost efficiency, and is good alternative to many companies, not to the society in the home country. Offshoring is trend that will be playing important role ircumstances, the strategy of the MNE will change too. The countries perceived today as a source of low cost labor, have become more and more often seen as a consumer markets. China, after India most popular offshoring destination, is also 2nd the biggest economy in the world, with fast growing middle class and forecast to reach 630 million consumers by the 2022 (The Diplomat, 2013). Population of BRIC countries accounts for around 2. 6 billion, which is around 27% of world population and is still growing (worldometers, 2013). This means MNE will be still going offshore in order to gain their share in those markets. Producing and sending products from one place will not be rational in the few years. Globalisation and developing markets will force MNE to set up nearshoring instead of offshoring in order to be able to recognize and respond to local conditions quick. Increasing pressure for the local responsiveness will lead to multi-domestic strategy where MNE will have to deal with the consumer divergence and host-government policies (Daniels, Sullivan, 2013). The size of the reshoring will depend on the strength of the government and law-makers in the developing countries. Win the businesses over and make them come back to ome country will be one of the greatest challenges for the policy-makers in the coming years. References: Brakman, S. , Garretsen, H. et al. (2006), Nations and Firms in the Global Economy, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, Chapters 3, 4 5. Business Standard (2013), SWOT analysis I India as an offshoring destination, [Online] [Accessed on 26/10/2013] Available from: business- standard. com/article/economy-policy/swot-analysis-india-as-an-offshoring- destination-113070300226 1 . html Carmel, E. Abbott, P. (2007), Why Nearshore Means That Distance Matters, [Online] Accessed on 28/10/2013] Available from: http://auapps. merican. edu/Ã¢â¬ carmel/ papers/nearshore. pdf Daniels, J. , Radebaugh, L. , Sullivan, D. (2013), International Business. Environment and Operations, Essex, Pearson Education Limited, pp. 57-59, 467-468. G?Ã ¶rg, H. , WTO (201 1), Globalization, offshoring and Jobs, Geneva, WTO Publications. K. pp. 146-185. Our Finite World, (2013), Ten Reasons Why High Oil Prices are a Problem, [Online] [Accessed on 27/10/2013] Available from: http://ourfiniteworld. c om/2013/01117/ten- reasons-why-high-oil-prices-are-a-problem/ Oshri, l. Kotlarsky, J. , Willcocks, L. 01 1), The Handbook of Global Outsourcing and Offshoring, 2nd edition, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 15. Roberts, P. (2012), America R. I. P. : Death of the Middle Class, Offshoring of American Jobs, [Online] [Accessed on 25/10/2013] Available from: globalresearch. ca/america-r-i-p- death-of-the-middle-class-offshoring-of-american-Jobs/5308637 Roberts, P. (2013), The Offshore Outsourcing of American Jobs: A Greater Threat Than Terrorism, [Online] [Accessed on 25/10/2013] Available from: http:// www. globalresearch. ca/the-offshore-outsourcing-of-american-]obs-a-greater-threat- than-terrorism/18725 The Economist (2013), Coming home, [Online] [Accessed on 26/10/2013] Available from: economist. com/news/special-report/21569570-growing-number- american-companies-are-moving-their-manufacturing-back-united The Economist (2013), Here, there and everywhere, [Online] [Accessed on 26/10/2013] Available from: economist. com/news/special-report/21 569572-after- decades-sending-work-across-world-companies-are-rethinking-their-offshoring The Economist, (2013), The story so far, [Online] [Accessed on 26/10/2013] Available from: economist. om/news/special-report/21 569574-offshoring-has- rought-huge-economic-benefits-heavy-political-price-story-so The Diplomat, Barton, D. (2013) Half a Billion: Chinas Middle-Class Consumers, [Online] [Accessed on 30/10/2013] Available from: http://thediplomat. com/pacific- money/2013/05/30/half-a-billion-chinas-middle-class-consumers/ WorldoMeters, (2013), Current World Population, [Online] [Accessed on 1/11/2013] Available from: worldometers. info/world- population/ WTO (2013), Supply Chain Issues, [Online] [Accessed on 20/10/2013] Available from: wto. org/english/res_e/booksp_e/aid4tradesupplychain13_part2_e. pdf
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
10 Extremely Common and Critical Themes in Literature When we refer to the theme of a book, we are talking aboutÃ a universal idea, lesson,Ã or message that stretches through the entire story. Every book has a theme and we often see the same theme in many books. Its also common for a book to have many themes. A theme may show up in a pattern such as reoccurring examples of beauty in simplicity. A theme may come also through as the result of a buildup like the gradual realization that war is tragicÃ and not noble. It is often a lesson that we learn about life or people. We can better understand book themes when we think about the stories we know from childhood. In The Three Little Pigs, for example, we learn that its not wise to cut corners (by building a straw house). How Can You Find a Theme in Books? Finding the theme of a book can be difficult for some students because the theme is something you determine on your own. It is not something you find stated in plain words. The theme is a message that you take away from the book and it is defined byÃ the symbols or a motif that keeps appearing and reappearing throughout the work. To determine the theme of a book, you should select a word that expresses the subject of your book. TryÃ to expand that word into a messageÃ about life.Ã 10 of the Most Common Book Themes While there are countless themes found in books, there are a few that we can see in many books. These universal themes are popular among authors and readers alike because they are experiences we can relate to. To give you some ideas on finding a books theme, lets explore some of the most popular and discover examples of those themes in well-known books. Remember, however, that the messages in any piece of literature can go much deeper than this, but it will at least give you a good starting point. Judgment - Possibly one of the most common themes is judgment. In these books, a character is judged for being different or doing wrong, whether the infraction is real or just perceived as wrongdoing by others. Among classic novels, we can see this in The Scarlet Letter, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, and To Kill a Mockingbird. As these tales prove, the judgment does not always equal justice, either.Survival - There is something captivating about a good survival story, one in which the main characters must overcome countless odds just to live another day. Almost any book by Jack London falls into this category because his characters often battle nature. Lord of the Flies is another in which life and death are important parts of the story. Michael Crichtons Congo and Jurassic Park certainly follow this theme.Peace and War - The contradiction between peace and war is a popular topic for authors. Quite often, the characters are gripped in the turmoil of conflict while hoping for days of p eace to come or reminiscing about the good life before the war. Books such as Gone With the Wind show the before, during, and after of war, while others focus on the time of war itself. Just a few examples include All Quiet on the Western Front, The Boy in the Striped Pajamas, and For Whom the Bell Tolls. Love - The universal truth of love is a very common theme in literature and you will find countless examples of it. They go beyond those sultry romance novels, too. Sometimes, it is even intertwined with other themes. Think of books like Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice or Emily Brontes Wuthering Heights. For a modern example, just look at Stephenie Meyers Twilight series.Heroism - Whether it is false heroism or true heroic acts, you will often find conflicting values in books with this theme. We see it quite often in classical literature from the Greeks, with Homers The Odyssey serving as a perfect example. You can also find it in more recent stories such as The Three Musketeers and The Hobbit.Ã Good and Evil -Ã The coexistence of good and evil is another popular theme. It is often found alongside many of these other themes such as war, judgment, and even love. Books such as the Harry Potter and Lord of the Rings series use this as the central theme. Another classic example is T he Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe. Circle of Life - The notion that life begins with birth and ends with death is nothing new to authors- many incorporate this into the themes of their books. Some may explore immortality such as in The Picture of Dorian Gray. Others, such as Tolstoys The Death of Ivan Ilych, shock a character into realizing that death inevitable. In a story like F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, the circle of life theme is turned completely upside down.Suffering - There is physical suffering and internal suffering and both are popular themes, often intertwined with others. A book such as Fyodor Dostoevskys Crime and Punishment is filled with suffering as well as guilt. One like Charles Dickens Oliver Twist looks more at the physical suffering of impoverished children, though there is plenty of both.Ã Deception - This theme can also take on many faces. Deception can be physical or social and its all about keeping secrets from others. For instance, we see many lies in The Adven tures of Huckleberry Finn and many of Shakespeares plays are centered on deception at some level. Any mystery novel has some sort of deception as well. Coming of Age - Growing up is not easy, which is why so many books rely on a coming of age theme. This is one in which children or young adults mature through various events and learn valuable life lessons in the process. Books such as The Outsiders and The Catcher in the Rye use this theme very well.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Consumers and insurance benefits issues paper - Essay Example The different issues under the healthcare system include Medicare, Medicaid and insurance. This essay will focus on the historical framework of insurance including management and technology implications in this sector. While Medicare covers hospital insurance, medical insurance, doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s service and outpatient hospital care, Medicaid has provided health care since 1965. Medicaid provides essential health support to Americans of all ages. Medicare does not pay for all of a covered persons medical costs and from January 2006, provides coverage for prescription drugs through a complex coverage model (Wikipedia). Medicare is partially financed by taxes on wages and in 2003, Medicare accounted for almost 13% of the entire Federal budget. Thirty three cents of every dollar spent on health care in the U.S. is paid by Medicare and Medicaid. Under the circumstances, health insurance becomes necessary. Health insurance spreads the risk of health care expenses and provides people access to medical services. Since the late 19th century, states have been regulating private health insurance companies and products with a view to assure financial solvency of the insurance companies, promote risk spreading, protect consumers against fraud, and ensure that consumers receive what they are promised (Kofman & Pollitz, 2006). Although the business of insurance was traditionally reserved for the state, in 1974, the federal government became the primary regulator of health benefits provided by the employer. During 1980s and 1990s, Congress established minimum standards for group health insurance. Today every state follows certain basic standards for health insurance. They ensure that insurers are financially solvent and in a position to settle claim promptly. In the private health insurance market, the insurers minimize their risks to avoid losses. They deny coverage to individuals who have health problems. Approximately